Introduction To IP Addressing And Networking

A network can be described as interconnecting autonomous computers that are linked together to facilitate communication, while networking is the simple concept of connected computers. more info here

Networks and networking have developed rapidly over the last 15years; they have evolved at light speed just to keep up with massive rises in simple essential user needs such as exchanging data and printers, as well as more complex demands such as video conferencing.



A LAN ( Local Area Network) is a community of linked computers and network devices usually within the same house. A Local Area Network ( LAN) is a high-speed communication system designed to connect computers and other data processing devices within a specific geographic region, such as a workgroup, agency, or construction. Shared access technology is implemented through local area networks. This means that all LAN-connected devices share a common communication medium, typically a coaxial, twisted pair or optical fiber cable.


Metropolitan area networks or MANs are large computer networks that generally span a city or a city. Usually, they use wireless infrastructure or fibre optical connections to link their sites.

The IEEE 802-2001 standard defines a MAN as being: “A MAN is designed for a wider geographical area than a LAN, ranging from many building blocks to entire cities. MANs may often rely on communications networks with moderate to high data rates. A MAN can be owned and controlled by a single entity, but it will typically be used by several individuals and organisations.

Broad AREA NETWORK (WAN, in Spanish)

Broad Area Network (WAN) is a computer network covering a wide region. A WAN is not confined to a geographical location as opposed to a Guy, although it may be confined to a geographical location, it may also be confined to the borders of a country or state. A WAN connects several LANs, and may be restricted to, or open to, a company (a corporation or organization).

High speed technology, and fairly costly. The INTERNET is an example of a collective WAN at world level.



Routers are used to interconnect networks and relay data packets from one network to another. By default, routers break up a broadcast domain, which is the collection of all devices in a section of the network that listens to all broadcasts that are sent on that line.

Routers split up domains for collisions, too. This is an Ethernet term used to describe a network situation where one device sends a packet to a section of the network, causing any other device in that section to pay attention to it. Simultaneously, a separate system tries to transmit, leading to a crash, in which all devices have to transmit one at a time.

Routers operate on reference model OSI ( Open Device Interconnection) layer 3.


Switches are used for segmentation of the network based on the MAC addresses. Switches take a look at the hardware addresses of the incoming frame before deciding either to forward or drop the frame.

Switches split up collision domains but one wide broadcast domain still belongs to the hosts on the switch.


A hub is really a repeater of multiple ports. A repeater receives a digital signal and re-amplifies or regenerates the signal and then transmits the digital signal without looking at any details. An active hub does the same. This means that all devices that are plugged into a hub are in the same collision domain as they are in the same broadcast domain, meaning devices share the same bandwidth. Hubs work at the OSI model’s physical layer.

IP Address

An IP address is a numerical identifier allocated to an IP network for every computer. It defines a device’s precise location within the network. An IP address is a software address designed to allow host on one network to communicate with a host on another network regardless of the type of LANs in which the hosts are participating.


Gram: A gram is a single digit, a 1 or a 0.

Byte: A byte is 7 or 8 bits, depending on how it uses parity.

Octet: An octet consisting of 8 bits is an regular binary number of 8 bits. Byte and octet are entirely interchangeable in most situations.

Network address: This is the routing identifier used to transfer packets over a remote network.,, and for example are network addresses.

Broadcast address: The address used to transmit information to all nodes on a network by applications and hosts is called the broadcast address. Examples include, which is all networks, all nodes;, which is all the network subnets and hosts.


An IP address is composed of 32 bits of data (IPV4). IPV6, a new version of IP is composed of 128 bits of data. The IP of 32 bits is divided into four parts, each containing 1 byte (8bits), known as octet or bytes.

Using any of those 3 methods, an IP address is shown.

The decimal crossed, as in

As in 10101100.000100.00011110.00111000, Binary

Hexadecimal, as in AC.10.1E.38

All these examples stand for the same IP address. But the decimal pointed one is the most commonly used. The Windows Registry stores a machine’s IP address in hex.